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  See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/223331458 Pharmacological evidences for the extracts andsecondary metabolites from plants of the genusHibiscus  Article   in  Food Chemistry · January 2010 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.005 CITATIONS 36 READS 643 6 authors , including:Joao Antonio Pegas HenriquesUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul 230   PUBLICATIONS   3,786   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE Jenifer SaffiUniversidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde… 95   PUBLICATIONS   1,288   CITATIONS   SEE PROFILE All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate,letting you access and read them immediately.Available from: Jenifer SaffiRetrieved on: 30 August 2016  This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attachedcopy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial researchand education use, including for instruction at the authors institutionand sharing with colleagues.Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling orlicensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third partywebsites are prohibited.In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of thearticle (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website orinstitutional repository. Authors requiring further informationregarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies areencouraged to visit:http://www.elsevier.com/copyright  Author's personal copy Review Pharmacological evidences for the extracts and secondary metabolitesfrom plants of the genus  Hibiscus Elemar Gomes Maganha a , Rafael da Costa Halmenschlager b , Renato Moreira Rosa a , João Antonio Pegas Henriques a,b , Ana Lígia Lia de Paula Ramos b , Jenifer Saffi a,b, * a Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica e Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética e Toxicologia Aplicada, Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS, Brazil b Departamento de Biofísica, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil a r t i c l e i n f o  Article history: Received 13 January 2009Received in revised form 24 February 2009Accepted 1 April 2009 Keywords:Hibiscus PhytotherapicsAntioxidantsMedicinal plants a b s t r a c t The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role inthepreventionofchronicanddegenerativediseasesiscontinuouslyadvancing.Infact,theoriginofmanytherapeuticsubstancesisduetosecondarymetabolismintheplant.Thegenus Hibiscus  contains220spe-cies distributed around the world. It is an interesting source of potential bioactive molecules, as phenoliccompounds, triterpene derivatives, phytosteroids, with antioxidant, cardioprotective, antihypertensiveandantiproliferativeactivities.Thisworkreviewsthepharmacologicalevidenceofextractsofplantsfromthe genus  Hibiscus , giving an overview of the most studied biological effects and the known phytochem-ical composition. Althoughmore studies are necessary,  Hibiscus  spp. exhibits proven potential to becomeof important pharmacological interest.   2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. Materials and methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.1. Hibiscus syriacus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.2. Hibiscus cannabinus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.3. Hibiscus taiwanensis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.4. Hibiscus macranthus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.5. Hibiscus escullentus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.6. Hibiscus vitifolius . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.7. Hibiscus abelmoschus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.8. Hibiscus tiliaceus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.9. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.10. Hibiscus sabdariffa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. Concluding remarks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1. Introduction In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all overthe world, and alarge bodyof evidencehas beencollectedto showthe immense potential of medicinal plants used in traditional sys-tems. Various medicinal plants have been identified and studiedusing modern scientific approaches. The results revealed thepotential of medicinal plants in the field of pharmacology (Fiala,Reddy, & Weisburger, 1985; Tapsell et al., 2006; Triggiani et al.,2006).Several human diseases, such as diabetes, neurodegenerative,cardiovascular diseases and specially carcinogenesis have beenassociated with oxidative stress. This condition occurs in a cellor in a tissue when the concentration of the reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) generated exceeds its antioxidant capability 0308-8146/$ - see front matter   2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd.doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.005 *  Corresponding author. Address: Laboratório de Genética Toxicológica, AvenidaFarroupilha 8001, Bairro São José, CEP 92425-900, Canoas, RS, Brasil. Tel.: +55 5134774000x2774; fax: +55 51 33167003. E-mail address:  jenifer.saffi@ulbra.br (J. Saffi).Food Chemistry 118 (2010) 1–10 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Food Chemistry journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/foodchem  Author's personal copy (Nakabeppu et al., 2006; Valko, Izakovic, Mazur, Rhodes, & Telser,2004, 2006). As a consequence, much attention has been directedto the research of naturally occurring protective antioxidants andtheir action mechanisms. In line with this, several plant extractsor their secondary metabolites have been found to show strongantioxidant activity and to protect against oxidant-induceddamage (Collins, 2005; Hayatsu, Arimoto, & Negishi, 1988; Loo,2003; Triggiani et al., 2006). Accordingly, many plant extractshave demonstrated potent cancer chemopreventive properties asobserved in the last decade (Ames, 1998; Ames & Gold, 1998;Beckman & Ames, 1998; Borek, 2004; Cassady, Baird, & Chang,1990). Most of these extracts are known to exert their effects byantioxidant mechanisms that either quench reactive oxygenspecies (ROS), inhibit lipid peroxidation or stimulate cellular anti-oxidant defenses (Valko et al., 2007; Yun et al., 1999).Natural products extracted from plants which belong to theMalvaceae family are used in the treatment of many diseasesworldwide. One important genus in this family is  Hibiscus  spp.,with more than 220 species distributed in tropical and subtrop-ical regions (Tseng & Lee, 2006). Species of the genus  Hibiscus have been used in several applications in traditional medicine,as antidotes to poisoning with chemicals and venomous mush-rooms and as a source of fibre in the pulp and paper industries.Members of the genus  Hibiscus  thrive in a variety of climates andproduce a diversity of natural compounds with interesting bioac-tive properties (Holser, Bost, & Van Boven, 2004). Pharmacologi-cal investigations of the genus  Hibiscus  indicated the presence of some species with useful biological activities as antihypertensive,anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrhoeic,anti-spermatogenic, anti-tumour, antidiabetic, anticonvulsivant,antihelminthic immunomodulator, antioxidant and antimuta-genic agents (Dafallah & Al-Mustafa, 1996; Sachdewa & Khemani,2003). Amongst these species, less than 15 have had their biolog-ical effects studied. The majority of these studies mainly concen-trated on  Hibiscus sabdariffa . In this paper, we revised thephytochemical composition and the main pharmacological ef-fects of the genus  Hibiscus . 2. Materials and methods  2.1. Hibiscus syriacusHibiscus syriacus , the common garden  Hibiscus , is called rose of Sharon in North America, a name given also to other plants. It isa flowering shrub native of Asia. The root bark of   H. syriacus  L.has been used as an antipyretic, antihelminthic, and antifungalagentintheeast.Fromthestemandrootbarkof  H. syriacus, sapon-arin, polyphenol compounds, betulin, canthin-6-one, carotenoidsand anthocyanins have been previously isolated (Chen & Fang,1993; Kwon, Hong, Kim, & Ahn, 2003). In this species, a lignannamed hibiscuside ((+)-pinoresinol 4- O -[ b -glucopyranosyl(1–2)- a -rhamnoside]) and a known lignan (syringaresinol) were presentin the root bark of this plant, together with two feruloyltyraminesand three known isoflavonoids: 6 00 - O -acetyldaidzin, 6 00 - O -acetyl-genistin and 3-hydroxydaidzein. All compounds exhibited impor-tant antioxidant activity in vitro (Yoo et al., 1998). Duringscreening for lipid peroxidation inhibitors, three naphthalenecompounds: 2,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-1-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde and 1-carboxy-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxynaphthalenecarbolactone (1 ? 8), designed assyriacusins A–C, were isolated from the chloroform extract of theroot bark of this plant (Yoo et al., 1998) .  Recently, in investigationsfor biologically active substances, two pentacyclic triterpene caf-feic acid esters were isolated (Fig. 1), increasing the number of molecules with potential pharmacodynamic interest in this spe-cies. These molecules inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat livermicrosomes, indicating the existence of an antioxidant potential(Kwonetal., 2003;Yunetal., 1999; Yooetal., 1998a). Intheinves-tigation of a methanolic extract of root bark, 8-hydroxy-5,6,7-tri-methoxycoumarin, a derivative of coumarin, scopoletin andclemicosins A, C and D were identified (Fig. 1). The molecules withthecoumarincoreinhibitedmonoamineoxidaseinvitroinadose-dependent manner, while the coumarin derivative and clemicosinwere potent antioxidative agents in vitro (Yun et al., 1999). OOOHH 3 CO(1)OOR 1 OH 3 COOOCH 3 OHR 2 (2) R1= OH; R2 = H(3) R1 = OH; R2 = OCH3OO OH 3 COOH 3 COOCH 3 OHOH(4)R 1 CH 2 R 2 CH 2 OH(5)OHCH 3 OCH 3 CHOHO(6) Fig. 1.  Somebiologicalcompoundsof  H. syriacus :(1)scopoletin;(2)clemiscosinA;(3)clemiscosinC;(4)clemiscosinD;(5)structureofpentacyclictriterpenes;(6)syriacusinA.2  E.G. Maganha et al./Food Chemistry 118 (2010) 1–10

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