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   Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 7.August 2009V. M. Jadhav et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1220-12221220-1222 Review ArticleISSN: 0974-6943   Traditional medicinal uses of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis V.M. Jadhav*, R.M. Thorat 1 , V.J. Kadam 1 and N. S. Sathe 2 *1  Department of Quality Assurance, Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy, Sector 08, CBD Belapur, Navi- Mumbai – 400614, India, 2 Y M T Ayurvedic Medical College, Kharghar, Navi -Mumbai Received on 03-04-2009; Accepted on: 29-06-2009  ABSTRACT  Medicinal and Aromatic Plants ( MAP S  ) are the ingredients of herbal drugs, herbal preparations, and herbal medicinal products, besidestraditional/ complementary medicines, house hold remedies and nutraceuticals. Over 100 million women world wide are currently usinghormonal contraceptives.  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  with these drugs, fertility can be suppressed at will, for as long as desired, with almost 100%confidence and complete return of fertility on discontinuation. The efficacy, convenience, low cost and overall safety of oral contraceptives( OC S  ) has allowed women to decide if and when they will become pregnant and to plan their activities. This article highlights some of thetraditional medicinal uses, chemical composition, therapeutic evaluation of  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis . Keywords:  Traditional medicinal uses, chemical composition, therapeutic evaluation, therapeutic claims of  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis *Corresponding author. Dr. (Mrs.) Varsha M. JadhavHOD and Professor Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Pharmacy,Sector 8, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai. Tel.: + 91- (022) 27722919, 09869046618 Telefax:  +91-(022) 27722919  E-mail: INTRODUCTION The herb  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  Linn ( Malvaceae ) is a glabrousshrub widely cultivated in the tropics as an ornamental plant and hasseveral forms with varying colours of flowers . In medicine , however the red flowered variety is preferred 1  . The leaves and flowers are observed to be promoters of hair growth and aid in healing of ulcers 2,3,4 . Flowers have been found to be effective in the treatment of arterial hypertension 5  and to havesignificant antifertility effect 6,7 . According to traditional texts it is well accepted that the leavesand flowers of  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  have hair growth promoting 2,8 and antigreying properties. Moreover, in India the herbal products inthe market intended for hair growth include the extract of various parts of  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis 1 . TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL USES :Table shows that traditional medicinal uses of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Sr.No. Place   Parts   Activity  1.BangladeshDecoction of flowersRegulation of menstrual cycle 9  2.ChinaHot water extract of flowers & barkEmmenagogue 10-12  3.Cook IslandsHot water extract of flowers & leavesAiling infants, Gonorrhea 13  4.East Indies I. Hot water extract of flowers. I.  Regulate menstruation produce abortion 11 II. Leaf Juice + Vernonia Cinerea   II. To stimulate expulsion of afterbirth 11  5.FijiLeaf JuiceDigestion , Diarrhea 14  6.French GuianaHot extract of flowersGrippe 15  7.GhanaPeeled TwigChewstick  16  8.GuadeloupeHot extract of flowersSodorific , Antitussive 17  9.GuamLeavesTo Promote draining of abscesses 18  10.HaitiDecoction of flowers & leavesFlu & cough, stomach pain, Eye problems 19  11.HawaiiFlowersLactation 20  12.IndiaHot water extract of stems & flowersAbortion 20 , Antifertility 21 , Contraceptive 22 ,Diuretic 23 , Menorrhagia, bronchitis 24 ,Emmenagogue 25 , Demulcent 26 ,Cough 27  ,Abortifacient 28  13.IndonesiaJuice of leaves & flowersMenstruation, Abortion 29 , Emmenagogue 30 ,Women in labor  29  14.JapanDecoction of leavesAntidiarrheal 31  15.KuwaitFlowersAphrodisiac 32  16.MalaysiaHot water extract of roots & flowersFever, Expectorant 11 , Emmenagogue 33  17.MexicoInfusion of Barks & leavesDysentery 34  18.NepalHot water extract of rootsCough 35  19.New BritainHot extract of flowersMenstruation 36  20.New CaledoniaDecoction of flowersAbortifacient 36  21.NorthernIrelandWater extract of flowersTo induce labor  37  22.PeruHot Water extract of flowersContraceptive, Emmenagogue 38  23.PhilippinesHot water extract of flowersBronchial Catarrh 12 , Emmolients 39 ,Cancerous,Swellings 40  24.TrinidadDecoction of flowersAmenorrhea 41,42  25.VanuataDecoction of stems & barksMenorrhagia 43  26.VietnamInfusion of flowersDysmenorrhea 44 , Abortive 45 Available online   Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 8.August 2009V. M. Jadhav et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(8),1220-12221220-1222 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION1. Major  Anthocyanins & flavonoids ; cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside, cyani-din-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, quercetin-3-diglucoside 46. 2. Other  A cyclopeptide alkaloid 47  , cyanidin chloride, quercetin,hentriacontane 48 and vitamins : riboflavin, ascorbic acid & thiamine 49 . THERAPEUTIC EVALUATION  An uncontrolled clinical trial using the ethanolic extract of  Hi-biscus rosa-sinensis flowers was carried out on 21 women in the re- productive age group by administering 750 mg/day in 3 divided dosesfrom the 7 th  to 22 nd  day of menstrual cycle ( Total of 229 cycles ).Fourteen women did not have pregnancy for 4 years, whereas 7 womendropped out of the trial. A clinical study on 30 patients suffering from hypertensionand hypercholesterolemia with a Siddha drug,  Anna PavalaSindhooram , containing  Japa  (  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  )as one of theingredients, indicated that the drug is efficacious in reducing thecholesterol, phospholipids and triglycerides. On withdrawal of thedrug there was slow increase in lipids. Clinical trials were conducted with Vidangadi yoga  ( a herbal prepration containing  Embelia ribes  seeds.  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers and  Ferula foetida  oleo-gum resin ) for its antifertility activ-ity. The drug was found to be quite effective with no toxic effects 50 . MAJOR THERAPEUTIC CLAIMS :  Oral contraceptive 51 . REFERENCES 1.Adhirajan , N., Kumar, T. R., Shanmugasundaram, N.& Babu, M., Invivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of  Hibiscusrosa-sinensis  Linn, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol-88, 2003,235-239.2.Nadkarni, A. K., Indian Materia Medica, Bombay, 1954, 631.3.Ali, M. & Ansari, S. H., Hair care and herbal drugs, Indian Journal of  Natural products , Vol-13, 1997, 3-5.4.Kurup, P. N. & Joshi, P., Handbook of Medicinal plants, New Delhi,1979, 86.5.Dwivedi, R. N., Pandey, S. P. & Tripathi, V. J., Role of Japapushpa inthe treatment of arterial hypertension. A trial study, Journal of Re-search in Indian Medicine, Yoga and Homeopathy, Vol-12, 1977, 13-36.6.Sethi, N., Nath, D.& Singh, R. K., Teratological study of an indig-enous antifertility medicine ,  Hibiscus rosa-sinensis  in rats, ArogyaJournal of Health Science, Vol-12, 1986, 86-88.7.Singh, M. 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Ethnopharmacol, Vol-36[2], 1992, 147-154.21.Krishnamurthy, Y., No easy way to new pill, Indian Express, Septem- ber 17, 1980.22.Tiwari, K. C., Majumder, R.& Bhattacharjee, S., Folklore informa-tion from Assam for family planning and birth control, Int J. CrudeDrug Res, Vol-20, 1982, 133-137.23.Maheswari,J. K., Singh, K. K.& Saha, S., Ethnomedicinal uses of  plants by the Tharus of Kheri District, U. P. Bull Med Ethnobot Res,Vol-I, 1980, 318-337.24.Jain, S. K., & Tarafder, C. R., Medicinal plantlore of the santals, EconBot, Vol-24, 1970, 178-241.25.Malhi, B. S., & Trivedi, V. P., Vegetable antifertility drugs of India, Q.J. Crude Drug Res, Vol-12, 1972, 19-22.26.Reddy, M. B., Reddy, K. R., & Reddy M. N., A survey of palnt crudedrugs of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, Indian, Int J. Crude DrugRes, Vol-27[3], 1989, 145-155.27.Dixit, V. P., Effects of Chronically administered Malvaviscus flower extract on the female genital tract, Indian J. 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