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Full View Digital Note Taking: The Use of Electronic Pens with Students with Specific Learning Disabilities

Full View Digital Note Taking: The Use of Electronic Pens with Students with Specific Learning Disabilities
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   JSET   Journal of Special Education Technology  Volume 28 • Issue 2 • 2013 A PUBLICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGY AND MEDIA DIVISION OF THE COUNCIL FOR EXCEPTIONAL CHILDREN  Co-Editors  John Castellani , Johns Hopkins University  Brenda Heiman , Louisiana ech University  Graduate Editorial Assistant Haley Hoffpauir , Louisiana ech University   JOURNAL of SPECIAL EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY  R. Allan Allday  University of Kentucky  Cindy Anderson Roosevelt University  Lynn Anderson-Inman University of Oregon amarah Ashton California State University–Northridge Melinda Ault  University of Kentucky  Kevin M. Ayres University of Georgia   James D. Basham University of Cincinnati Margaret Bausch University of Kentucky   William Bielawski University of Illinois–Chicago Brian Bottge University of Kentucky  Randall Boone University of Nevada–Las Vegas Emily C. Bouck  Purdue University   Amanda Boutot  exas State University  Lisa Bowman exas A&M University  Monica Brown New Mexico State University  Debra Carran  Johns Hopkins University   John Castellani  Johns Hopkins University  David F. Cihak  University of ennessee Sharon F. Cramer Buffalo State College Teresa A. Cullen University of Oklahoma  Terese Cumming  University of New South Wales–Sydney  eresa aber Doughty  Purdue University  David L. Edyburn University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee  Anna S. Evmenova  George Mason University  Gail Fitzgerald  University of Missouri–Columbia  Marilyn Friend  University of North Carolina–Greensboro Douglas Fuchs Vanderbilt University  Lynn Fuchs Vanderbilt University   J. Emmett Gardner University of Oklahoma  om Hanley  U.S. Office of Special Education Programs ed Hasselbring  Vanderbilt University  Brenda Heiman Louisiana ech University  Leah Herner Te Ohio State University  Kyle Higgins University of Nevada–Las Vegas Maya Israel University of Cincinnati Paula Lancaster Grand Valley State University  Sean Lancaster Grand Valley State University  Carl Liaupsin University of Arizona   Joan Lieber University of Maryland Paula Maccini University of Maryland Charles MacArthur University of Delaware David Majsterek  Central Washington University  David Malouf  Institute of Education Sciences Matthew . Marino  Washington State University  Sarah McPherson New York Institute of echnology  Linda Mechling  University of North Carolina– Wilmington Susan Mistrett  SUNY at Buffalo  Joel Mittler CW Post University   Joseph Morgan University of Nevada–Las Vegas Deborah Newton Southern Connecticut State University  Steve Nourse Central Washington University  Teresa A. Ochoa  Indiana University  Cynthia Okolo Michigan State University  Phil Parette Illinois State University  Robert Pennington University of Louisville Kathleen S. Puckett   Arizona State University  Marshall Raskind  Schwab Learning  Laila J. Richman Macon State College David Rose Center for Applied Special echnology  Ralf W. Schlosser Northeastern University  Derrick Smith University of Alabama–Huntsville Sean Smith University of Kansas Steven B. Smith Northern Kentucky University   Joseph Stowitschek  University of Washington Cathy Newman Tomas University of Missouri Matthew incani emple University   Jason ravers University of Massachusetts–Amherst Linda santis  Johns Hopkins University  oni Van Laarhoven Northern Illinois University  Mike Wehmeyer University of Kansas Cheryl Wissick  University of South Carolina  Editorial Review Board Check out the AM website on your smartphone View the entire AM product line on your smartphone  Journal of Special Education Technology JSET 2013 Volume 28, Number 2 i Table of    Contents    Clicking Away: Repurposing Student Response Systemsto Lessen Off-task Behavior  .....................................................1 Kathryn Szwed and Emily C. Bouck     Digital Note aking: Te Use of Electronic Pens with Students with Specific Learning Disabilities .....................................13 Sarah Irvine Belson, Daniel Hartmann, and Jennifer Sherman    Multimodal Composing in Special Education: A Review of the Literature ........25 David Bruce, Dane Marco Di Cesare, ara Kaczorowski, Andrew Hashey, Emily Hoeh Boyd, oni Mixon, and Melissa Sullivan    Online Learning for Early Intervention Professionals:ransition Planning from Early Intervention to School ..........................43 Leslie Morrison, Richard Fleming, Cheryl Gray, Cindy Fleming, and Charles Hamad Technology in Action     Visual Supports for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders ................53 Deborah A. Newton, Ruth Eren, Michael Ben-Avie, and Brian Reichow  Author Guidelines     JSE   Author Guidelines  .......................................................57     JSE   echnology in Action Author Guidelines ..................................58  Journal of Special Education Technology ii JSET 2013 Volume 28, Number 2 TAM Board Members  Joel Mittler, President & CAN Coordinator Long Island University Brenda Heiman, Past President & Journal Co-Editor Louisiana Tech University Margaret Bausch, President Elect & Publications Co-Chair University of Kentucky Cheryl emple, Member-at-Large Fairfax County Public Schools Marci Jerome, reasurer George Mason University  Joy Zabala, Secretary  CAST  John Castellani, Journal Co-Editor & Webmaster Johns Hopkins University  J. Emmett Gardner, Awards Chair University of Oklahoma Lynne Mainzer & Sue Stein, Professional Development Co-Chairs Johns Hopkins University Cynthia Okolo, Member-at-Large Michigan State University Melinda Ault, Publications Co-Chair University of Kentucky Editorial Policy and Goals Te  Journal of Special Education echnology (  JSE  ) is a refereed professional journal that presents up-to-date information and opinions about issues, research, policy, and practice related to the use of technology in the field of special education. 󰁊󰁓󰁅󰁔 supports the publication of research and development activities, provides technologi- cal information and resources, and presents information and discussion concerning important issues in the field of special education technology to scholars, teacher educa- tors, and practitioners. Te mission of  JSE   is: “to provide a vehicle for the proliferation of information ,  research ,  and reports of innovative practices regarding the application of educational technology toward the development and educa-tion of exceptional children.” JSE   is a publication of the echnology and Media (AM) Division of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC).Te goals of AM include:• Promoting collaboration among educators and oth- ers interested in using technology and media to assist individuals with exceptional educational needs.• Encouraging the development of new applications, technologies, and media that can benefit individuals with exceptionalities.• Disseminating relevant and timely information through professional meetings, training programs, and publications.• Coordinating the activities of educational and govern- mental agencies, business, and industry.• Developing and advancing appropriate technical standards.• Providing technical assistance, inservice, and pre- service education on the uses of technology.• Monitoring and disseminating relevant research.•  Advocating for funds and policies that support the availability and effective use of technology in this field. • Supporting the activities, policies, and procedures of CEC and other CEC divisions. Subscriptions and Membership in TAM Te     Journal    of     Special    Education   echnology   publishes 4 issues per year. Online access to  JSE   is free to members of the echnology and Media Division of the Council for Exceptional Children. Print subscriptions to  JSE   are available from Exceptional Innovations ( ) at the following rates:Individual Domestic Mail: $89 per yearInstitutional: $228 per year Electronic Read Only: $148 per year (individual email required)International (Canada): $272 per yearInternational (non-Canada): $294 per year All inquiries concerning subscriptions  should be sent to:Exceptional Innovations, Inc., A:  JSE  P.O. Box 3853, Reston, VA 20195703-709-0136 Te opinions expressed in  JSE   are those of the authors and con- tributors and do not necessarily reflect those of AM, the editors, the editorial board, Exceptional Innovations, or the organization with which the authors are affiliated. Membership  inquiries should be directed to the address below or a membership brochure may be found on the AM website at: .Te Council for Exceptional Children2900 Crystal Drive, Suite 1000 Arlington, VA, 22202-3557703-620-3663 or 1-888-CEC-SPED toll freeY: 703-264-9446 fax: 703-264-9494 Copyright © 2013, echnology and Media Division (AM) of the Council for Exceptional Children  Journal of Special Education Technology JSET 2013 Volume 28, Number 2 1 Clicking Away: Repurposing Student Response Systems to Lessen Off-task Behavior Kathryn Szwed Emily C. Bouck Purdue University Self-monitoring is a well-documented practice to assist educators with addressing students’ behavioral chal-lenges. However, little research has examined technology to support students’ self-monitoring. Within this study, three elementary students were taught self-monitoring skills using student response systems to increase on-task behaviors in an inclusive setting. When prompted by the teacher, students identified as having an emotional disability or students at risk for behavioral challenges used a student response system to record if they were on or off task. A single-subject withdrawal design indicated the frequency of each student’s off-task behavior decreased during use of the student response system. During the withdrawal and maintenance phases, frequency of the behavior returned to baseline levels. Te technology supported improved student behavior when used, but students were unable to maintain the improved on-task behavior when they were not self-monitoring. Student and teacher perceptions of the student response system technology verified the off-task behavior data; students and teachers were positive about the use of the technology as a self-monitoring tool. G eneral education teachers face many challenges in their heterogeneous classrooms, from educating students with a range of academic abilities within the general education curriculum to taking responsibil- ity for students’ behavioral progress (Hawken, Vincent, & Schumann, 2008). eachers also confront challenges regarding the implementation of practices relative to educa-tional laws in their classrooms (i.e., No Child Left Behind, 2002 and the Individuals with Disabilities with Education  Act, 2004). One important aspect of these educational policies involves the use of evidence-based practices by teachers, meaning teachers are to use practices supported by research in conjunction with professional wisdom (United States Department of Education, 2002). Included in the call to implement evidence-based practices is a focus on all areas of education. Implementation of evidence-based practices is not only limited to academics; it also extends to behavior (Cheney, Flower & empleton, 2008). One behavior-focused intervention considered to pres- ent a strong evidence base is self-monitoring (Fitzpatrick & Knowlton, 2009; Lee, Palmer, & Wehmeyer, 2009; Reid, rout, & Schartz, 2005). Self-monitoring—defined as identifying and regulating one’s own behavior—is a common strategy for changing behavior by teaching students skills to recognize a specific undesirable behavior and adjusting it through self-identification and record- ing (Ackerman & Sharipo, 1984; Agran, 1997; Rafferty & Raimondi, 2009). Self-monitoring is frequently dis-cussed as two approaches: self-monitoring of attention, and self-monitoring of performance (Reid et al., 2005). Self-monitoring of attention addresses attention-based behavior (e.g., on or off task), and self-monitoring of performance focuses on academic performance (e.g., ac- curacy or productivity; Reid, 1996). Frequently seen in many disciplines, this strategy has been employed to teach students with a range of disabilities—including students with emotional/behavior disorders or students who expe- rience challenging behavior—how to monitor their own behaviors (Agran, Sinclair, Alper, Cavin, Wehmeyer, & Hughes, 2005; Levendoski & Cartledge, 2000; Maag, Reid, & DiGangi, 1993; Wehmeyer, Yeager, Bolding,  Argan, & Hughes, 2003).
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