Collections of Bruchomyiinae and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the north-central portion of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, with the description of a new species

Collections of Bruchomyiinae and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the north-central portion of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, with the description of a new species
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  1270  Accepted by P. Adler: 27 Jun 2006; published: 24 Jul. 2006    19 ZOOTAXA ISSN 1175-5326 (print edition)ISSN   1175-5334   (online edition) Copyright © 2006 Magnolia Press  Zootaxa  1270: 19 – 33 (2006)  /  zootaxa  /  Collections of Bruchomyiinae and Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the north-central portion of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, with the description of a new species SERGIO IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL 1 , RUTH A. HERNÁNDEZ-XOLIOT 2  & FREDY MENDOZA 2,3 1  Instituto de Ecología, A. C., Departamento de Biodiversidad y Ecología Animal. Km 2.5 carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, Congregación El Haya, Xalapa, 91070, Veracruz, México. E-mail: 2  Departamento de Control de Enfermedades Transmitidas por Vector, Servicios de Salud de Veracruz, Soco-nusco N° 31, Col. Aguacatal, Xalapa, C. P. 91130, Veracruz, México. E-mail: 3 Posgrade student, Instituto de Ecología, A. C. E-mail: Abstract An entomological survey was carried out in the municipalities of Juchique de Ferrer and Colipa inthe north-central area of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, where some human cutaneous leishmaniasiscases have been recorded. These sampling efforts were undertaken to identify potential vectors of   Leishmania  species in that area. A total of 123 specimens were obtained, corresponding to onespecies of the Bruchomyiinae genus  Nemapalpus  Macquart, and six species of the Phlebotominaegenus  Lutzomyia  França. Additional morphological characters of the poorly known male of   Nemapalpus dampfianus  Alexander and a description of  Lutzomyia leohidalgoi   sp. nov. , based onmale and female characteristics, are presented with illustrations. This is the first record fromVeracruz of  Nemapalpus dampfianus  Alexander,  Lutzomyia serrana  (Damasceno & Arouck)(species group Verrucarum ),  Lutzomyia ( Psathyromyia )  cratifer   (Fairchild & Hertig), and  Lutzomyia (  Helcocyrtomyia )  oppidana  (Dampf).  Lutzomyia (  Lutzomyia )  cruciata  (Coquillett) and  L. ( Psathyromyia )  shannoni  (Dyar) are anthropophilic species already known from Veracruz. Key words:  Psychodidae, Bruchomyiinae, Phlebotominae, Mexico,  Nemapalpus ,  Lutzomyia , newspecies Introduction In April 2005, an entomological survey was carried out in the municipalities of Juchiquede Ferrer and Colipa in the north-central area of the State of Veracruz, Mexico, wheresome human cutaneous leishmaniasis cases had been recorded. Additional captures weremade in January, February, and March 2006. These sampling efforts were undertaken to  IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL    ET AL. 20   © 2006   Magnolia Press 1270 ZOOTAXA identify potential vectors of  Leishmania  sp. in that area.Juchique de Ferrer is located on the Gulf of Mexico slope, in the north-central portionof the state of Veracruz at 19° 50' N and 96° 42' W, with an elevation average of 380 m.This area is part of the foothills of Sierra de Chiconquiaco and comprises about259.10km 2 . It is limited to the North by Colipa and Vega de Alatorre, to the South byTepetlán and Alto Lucero, to the East by Vega de Alatorre and Alto Lucero, and to theWest by Yecuatla and Chiconquiaco municipalities. It is crossed by the small riverLechuguillas, which is a tributary of the river Juchique. The climate is hot and wet, with anannual mean temperature of 25º C and about 999.8 mm of rainfall per year. The srcinalflora corresponds to a subtropical forest, but today there are important coffee plantations.There were 18,971 inhabitants in the year 2000, with a density of 73.219individuals/km 2 ;nearly all the people live in rural localities, with only one urbanized town, with 16,110persons living in the country and 2,861 in the town (Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz2002a)The municipality of Colipa is near Juchique de Ferrer and is located at 19° 55' N and96° 43' W, with an elevation average of 200 m, comprising an area of about 143.94km 2  of the foothills of Sierra de Chiconquiaco. It is limited to the North by Vega de Alatorre, tothe South by Juchique de Ferrer and Yecuatla, to the East by Vega de Alatorre, and to theWest by Vega de Alatorre and Misantla municipalities. It is crossed by the river Colipa.The climate is hot and wet, with an annual mean temperature of 22.4° C, and about 1,671mm of rainfall per year. The srcinal flora is similar to that of Juchique, and it now hassome coffee plantations. There were 5,610 inhabitants in the year 2000, with a density of 43.046individuals/km 2 ; nearly all the people live in 61 rural localities (about 3,610people), with only one urbanized town (with 2,000 habitants) (Gobierno del Estado deVeracruz 2002b).The rural condition of more than 50% of all the inhabitants of both municipalities,living inside the coffee plantations or near the forest, with economical activities based onwild resources or agriculture, constitute one of the most important risk factors for infectionby  Leishmania  parasites. This condition is related to the vertebrate host richness stillavailable in the zone, as well as the presence of anthropophilic Phlebotomine sand flies. Materials and methods The April (2005) and January (2006) collections were made by Mr. Julio César BernabéPlácido and Mr. Jorge A. Guevara López of the Entomological Unit of the SanitaryJurisdiction N° IV of Veracruz Health Services, using the following techniques: sticky-light traps near burrows of wild rodents at the base of trees, direct capture in natural holesand crevices where the insects rest, and human attraction. The February (2006) collectionwas supplemented by Fredy Mendoza, using CDC miniature UV light traps and human   © 2006 Magnolia Press 21 PSYCHODIDAE 1270 ZOOTAXA bait landing-capture. The March (2006) collection was made by direct capture in refugesby the same personnel. A total of 123 specimens were captured and processed for taxonomic study, followingthe procedure described by Ibáñez-Bernal (2005). As result of the taxonomic study, onespecies of  Nemapalpus  Macquart (Bruchomyiinae) and six species of  Lutzomyia  França(Phlebotominae) were recognized, including a new species of Phlebotomine sand fly. Onefemale specimen could not be determined.An annotated list of the species found is presented, as well as the description of a newspecies. We follow the classification used by Young and Duncan (1994) and the generalmorphological nomenclature of Quate and Vockeroth (1981), in accordance withMcAlpine et al . (1981), but we used some more descriptive terms for genital structures,following Quate and Alexander (2000) in the case of Bruchomyiinae. Measurements aregiven in millimeters. All material was permanently mounted on microscope slides, and isdeposited in the Insect Collection of Instituto de Ecología, A. C., Xalapa, Veracruz,Mexico (IEXA). Subfamily Bruchomyiinae  Nemapalpus dampfianus  Alexander (Figs. 1 – 9)  Nemopalpus [ sic ] dampfianus  Alexander, 1940: 796, Figs. 2, 4 (male description). Type-locality:Finca El Vergel, Chiapas, Mexico. Additional references: Barretto and D´Andretta 1946: 59;Fairchild 1952: 272, Figs. 12, 13, 21 – 25, 36 (female description); Duckhouse 1973: 3 (Neotro-pical catalogue)  Nemapalpus dampfianus  Alexander: Quate and Alexander, 2000: 186 (revision) This species was known only from the male holotype from Finca El Vergel (near Huixtla)(Chiapas), described by Alexander (1940), and by one female specimen from Palenque(Chiapas), described by Fairchild (1952). This is the third finding of the species and thefirst record in the State of Veracruz, extending considerably its known distribution to thenorth of the country. The description presented by Alexander (1940) is short, referring principally to thecoloration of the body vestiture, the number and general form of the flagellomeres, thewing vein R 2+3 , and the morphological characteristics of the gonopod, illustrating the wing,the apical portion of the gonocoxite, and the gonostylus, as well as tergite 10. Twelve yearslater, Fairchild (1952) associated the female and described it as  N. dampfianus , based as hesaid “mainly on the basis of the wing venation and the presence of dark hair tufts on thewings, noted before mounting”. Quate and Alexander (2000) in their “Synopsis of NewWorld  Nemapalpus ”, include this species and mention, as recognition characters, the wingvenation, absence of an oval sclerite in the pleurites, and morphological details of the  IBÁÑEZ-BERNAL    ET AL. 22   © 2006   Magnolia Press 1270 ZOOTAXA gonopods. All these characteristics permit accurate identification of the species;nevertheless, in their key to males of New World  Nemapalpus , couplet 3 for  N.dampfianus  reads “gonostylus without bristles at base”, which is not true and must insteadread “gonostylus with bristles at base but without enlargement” (as in  N. pilipes  Tonnoir).Additional characteristics that are taken into account in the modern descriptions of thespecies of this genus, not mentioned previously anywhere, are as follows: Male.  Eyes separated by ± 3 facets diameters; frons with cluster of 10 – 19 seta alveolibetween eyes, that is separated from other seta alveoli of frons and vertex; palpal segmentsproportions: 1.0: 1.2: 1.3: 3.7 (Fig. 1); Newstead scales present on central portion of innermargin of palpal segment 2 (Fig. 3); antenna with 14 cylindrical flagellomeres; apex of first flagellomere at same level of apex of palpal segment 3; proportion of first threeflagellomeres: 11: 6: 7 (Fig. 1); each flagellomere with 2 kinds of ascoids, the typical  Nemapalpus  mushroom-shaped ascoids, and many short, digitiform, simple ascoids(similar to those observed in  Maruina Müller or Pericoma  Walker s. l. (Psychodinae))(Fig. 2); mushroom-shaped ascoids present on flagellomeres as follows (pairs): F1 (2), F2(2), F3 (4), F4 (4), F5 (3), F6 (3), F7 (3), F8 (3), F9 (3), F10 (3), F11 (1), F12 (1), F13 (1),F14 (1); flagellomere 14 with apiculus. Thorax with all pleural sclerites covered withmicrotrichia, propleuron with line of 4 – 7 setae alveoli near spiracle; prosternum withsetose conical projection directed forward between fore coxae. Wing with Sc extendingbeyond base of R 2+3  and connected to C; R 2+3 , with base incomplete and 2.75X length of R 2 ; base of R 5  beyond level of medial fork, so r-m reaches M 1 ; base of M 2  not attached tovein M 1+2 ; cu-m developed; CuA 2  with base incomplete and apical portion taken fromtransverse vein shorter than basal portion (Figs. 4, 5). Abdomen without setae tufts onlateral margin. Hypandrium simple and narrow, heavily sclerotized (Fig. 6); gonocoxitewith subapical internal lobe, with its apex divided into rounded fore lobe covered withpatch of setae, which are as long as gonocoxal lobe, and conical rear lobe having shortspiniform setae at apex (Figs. 6 and 7); gonostylus 1.2X length of gonocoxite; indorsoventral view, gonostylus shows external margin nearly straight, just curved nearapex, and internal margin only slightly convex with some long lanceolate rigid squamae inbasal two-thirds, followed by small setose lobe, shallow preapical concavity, and preapicalsetose lobe; apex of gonostylus curved inward ending in sclerotized claw (Figs. 6, 7).Parameres slightly longer than gonocoxite, both forming oval structure, with dorsal marginless sclerotized and giving rise, from middle to apex, to row of long posterior directedsetae, of which first pair reaches apical level of paramere (Figs. 6, 9); this dorsal marginhas a mesad setose preapical lobe and ends in another blunt setose lobe; ventrally,paramere presents laminar keel thickened near its apex and, in dorsoventral view, both arefused to form spoon-shaped structure (Figs. 6, 9). Aedeagus with simple rod basiphallusand distiphallus shaped as equilateral triangle with blunt apex (Fig. 9). Epandrium littlelonger than wide, covered with large alveoli; cercus oval in lateral view; tergite 10triangular (Fig. 8).   © 2006 Magnolia Press 23 PSYCHODIDAE 1270 ZOOTAXA FIGURES 1–6.    Nemapalpus dampfianus  Alexander, male. 1.  Head, frontal view. 2.  Flagellomere2, showing ascoids. 3.  Palpal segment 2, showing Newstead scales. 4.  Wing vestiture beforemounting. 5.  Wing after mounting, showing veins, 6.  Male terminalia, lateral view. Measurements (in mm). Wing length: 3.93 ± 0.05 (3.9 – 4.02) n  = 8; wing width: 1.08 ±0.05 (1.04 – 1.19) n  = 8; head height: 0.53 ± 0.01 (0.52 – 0.56) n  = 8; head width: 0.61 ± 0.03(0.56 – 0.65) n  = 8; palpus length: 0.88 ± 0.031 (0.86 – 0.93) n  = 8; flagellomere 1 length:0.42 ± 0.035 (0.39 – 0.50) n  = 8; flagellomere 2 length: 0.26 ± 0.007 (0.26 – 0.28) n  = 7;
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