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Bridgman - tlumaczenie

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86-92 86 PLANES OF THE HEAD In considering the distribution of the masses of the head, the thought of the ma sses must come first; that of planes, second. Planes are the front, top and side s of the masses. It is the placing and locking of these planes or forms that gives solidity and s tructural symmetry to the face, and it is their relative proportion as well as t he degree to which each tilts forward or backward, protrudes or recedes, that ma kes the more obvious differences in faces. P£ASZCZ
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  86-9286PLANES OF THE HEADIn considering the distribution of the masses of the head, the thought of the masses must come first; that of planes, second. Planes are the front, top and sides of the masses.It is the placing and locking of these planes or forms that gives solidity and structural symmetry to the face, and it is their relative proportion as well as the degree to which each tilts forward or backward, protrudes or recedes, that makes the more obvious differences in faces.P£ASZCZYZNY G£OWYBior¹c pod uwagê rozmieszczenie poszczególnych mas (bry³) g³owy, w pierwszej kolejno  ci narozwa¿yæ masy (bry³y), dopiero w drugiej - p³aszczyzny. P³aszczyzny to przód, góra i bokiTo w³a  nie umieszczenie i osadzenie tych p³aszczyzn i form nadaje twarzy solidno  æ/spójno  rukturaln¹ symetriê. Ich wzajemne proporcje oraz k¹t pod jakim ka¿da z nich jest nachylona (w przód lub w ty³), wystaje lub siê cofa, tworz¹ czytelne ró¿nice w twarzach.87Head in general should be neither too round nor too square. All heads, round oroval or square, would be without contrast in form.In drawing, one must look for or suspect that there is more than is casually seen. The difference in drawing is in what you sense, not what you see. There is other than that which lies on the surface.G³owa generalnie nie powinna byæ ani zbyt okr¹g³a, ani zbyt kwadratowa. G³owy okr¹g³e, owalub kwadratowe, by³yby bez kontrastu w formie.Podczas rysowanie nale¿y poszukiwaæ lub podejrzewaæ, ¿e tam jest wiêcej, ni¿ normalnie widmy. Ró¿nica w rysunku le¿y w tym, co czujesz, nie w tym co widzisz. Jest wiêcej ni¿ tylkoto, co widaæ powierzchownie (na zewn¹trz).89The front of a face is the front plane. The ear side is another plane. Spectacles are hinged to conform to the front and sides of a face.The square or triangular forehead must have a front and two sides, making threeplanes.The face turns at a line from each cheek bone downward to the outer side of thechin. There is also a triangular plane on each side of the nose; its base from tip to wings forms another triangular plane. There is also the square or roundedchin with planes running back from each side.Border lines separate the front and sides of the forehead above, and cheek bonesand chin below. Across from ear to cheek bone is a ridge separating two or moreplanes which slope upward toward the forehead and downward to the chin.Considering the masses of the head, the thought of the masses comes first, thenthe planes; after that the rounded parts of the head. There are four rounded forms of the skull. One on the forehead, two on the sides of the head, just above each ear, and one on the front of the face, extending from nose to chin. On eachside, at the upper part of the forehead, are two rounded elevations termed the frontal eminences. These eminences often merge into one and are referred to as the frontal eminence.Przód twarzy to p³aszczyzna czo³owa (przednia). Bok g³owy (z uchem) tworzy kolejn¹ p³aszcznê - boczn¹. Okulary s¹ zawieszone zgodnie z przodem i bokami twarzy. [to zdanie pra  wdopodobnie odnosi siê bezpo  rednio do rysunku obok, inaczej mo¿na by u¿yæ oczodo³y ]Kwadratowe lub trójk¹tne czo³o musi mieæ przód oraz dwa boki, tworz¹c w ten sposób trzy p³zny.Twarz zagina siê od ka¿dej z ko  ci policzkowym w dó³, do zewnêtrznej strony brody. Jest rótrójk¹tna p³aszczyzna z ka¿dej strony nosa; jego podstawa od czubka do nasady/skrzyde³ tworzy kolejn¹ trójk¹tn¹ p³aszczyznê. Jest równie¿ kwadratowy lub zaokr¹glony podbródek z p³arzebiegaj¹cymi do ty³u z ka¿dej strony.Linie brzegowe oddzielaj¹ przód i boki czo³a u góry, oraz ko  ci policzkowych i brody u do³W poprzek od ucha do ko  ci policzkowej znajduje siê grzbiet oddzielaj¹cy dwie lub wiêcej p³aszczyzn które pochylaj¹ siê ku górze w kierunku czo³a oraz w gó³ ku brodzie.Rozwa¿aj¹c masy (bry³y) g³owy, w pierwszej kolejno  ci rozwa¿amy masy (bry³y), nastêpnie p³y; a w koñcu zaokr¹glone czê  ci g³owy. S¹ cztery zaokr¹glone formy czaszki. Jedna na czoleie po bokach g³owy (tu¿ powy¿ej uszu), i jedna z przodu twarzy, rozci¹gaj¹ca siê od nosa dbrody. Na ka¿dej stronie, w górnej czê  ci czo³a, s¹ dwa zaokr¹lone wzniesienia, nazywane gi czo³owymi. Wzniesienia te czêsto zlewaj¹ siê w jedno i nazywane s¹ wówczas guzem czo³owy91The plane of the forehead slopes upward and backward to become the cranium; andthe sides turn sharply to the plane of the temples.The plane of the face, divided by the nose, is broken on each side by a line from the outer corner of the cheek bone to the center of the upper lip, making twosmaller planes.The outer of these turns to become the plane of the jaw, which also is again divided by a line marking the edge of the masseter muscle, running from the outer border of the cheek bone to the corner of the jaw, and again making two secondaryplanes, one toward the cheek and one toward the ear.The relations of these masses and planes is to the moulding of a head what architecture is to a house. They vary in proportion with each individual, and must becarefully compared with a mental standard.P³aszczyzna czo³a nachyla siê ku górze i do ty³u, staj¹c siê sklepieniem czaszki; boki przdz¹ ostro w p³aszczyznê skroni.P³aszczyzna twarzy, rozdzielona przez nos, jest z ka¿dej strony rozbita przez liniê biegn¹c¹ od zewnêtrznego rogu ko  ci policzkowej do  rodka górnej wargi, tworz¹c w ten sposóbmniejsze p³aszczyzny.Z tych dwóch p³aszczyzn zewnêtrzne stopniowo zakrzywiaj¹ siê tworz¹c szczêkê, która z koleodzielona przez liniê wyznaczaj¹c¹ brzeg ¿waczy (miê  nie ¿ucia), przebiegaj¹c¹ od zewnêtrzu ko  ci policzkowych do rogu szczêki, znów tworz¹c dwie mniejsze p³aszczyzny - jedn¹ od stny policzka, drug¹ od strony ucha.Wzajemne relacje tych mas i p³aszczyzn formuj¹ g³owê - podobnie, jak architektura dom. Ró¿siê one w proporcjach u ró¿nych ludzi, i musz¹ byæ precyzyjnie oddane w odniesieniu do formy brody. [tutaj zak³adam, ¿e mental w tym kontek  cie znaczy broda ]
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